## Archive for the ‘Maths’ Category

### And it was done

Saturday, March 1st, 2008

Since I already had the binary search and interpolation code, it was just a matter of writing different samplers for ellipses and Bézier curves.

```;; make a sampler function for a bezier curve
(defun make-bezier-sampler (p0 p1 p2 p3)
(lambda (k)
(decasteljau p0 p1 p2 p3 k)))

;; make a sampler function for an ellipse
(lambda (k)
(let ((x (* xradius (cos k)))
(make-point (+ x (xcoord center)) (+ y (ycoord center))))))
```

Equal angle increments: Equal circumferential distances: ### More on ellipses

Saturday, March 1st, 2008

I think I will use the same method as I do for Bézier curves to step along the circumference.

Another generalisation I had to make from the circle code is with respect to the normal. For a circle of radius r, centred on the origin, and parameterised by angle θ, a point on the circle is (r cos θ, r sin θ). And the normal is exactly the same: the point vector is normal to the circle.

For an ellipse, this is not the case. For an ellipse with half-dimensions a and b, centred on the origin, and parameterised by angle θ, a point on the ellipse is (a cos θ, b sin θ). But the normal is (b cos θ, a sin θ).

(Of course, the ellipse form degenerates to the circle form when a = b.)

### On ellipses

Saturday, March 1st, 2008

Having conquered equidistant spacing along a Bézier curve, my thoughts now turn to the same problem for an ellipse. I have solved the problem for a circle of course, which is a special case of an ellipse. One would think that going from a circle to an ellipse would be mathematically easy: it’s easy to compute a point on an ellipse given centre and radii, and an ellipse is just a 2-way stretched circle, right?

Well, as with the Bézier curve, it’s not as simple as simply incrementing the angle parameter around the ellipse as one can with a circle, because obviously in that case the distance between successive points will vary.

And then one comes up against the rather startling fact that there is no simple exact equation for the circumference of an ellipse. No variant of 2πr here. As one reference puts it, “there are simple formulas but they are not exact, and there are exact formulas but they are not simple”. The exact formulas are infinite sums. The simple formulas can be glaringly inexact, depending on the ellipse.

I’m thinking on it some more. If, as I suspect, there proves to be no easy closed form solution to how much to vary the angle (or other alternative parameters of the curve) to achieve uniform spacing of radial points, I can fall back on the same solution as for the Bézier curve, i.e. sampling and interpolation.

### Experimenting with (cubic) Bézier subdivision

Wednesday, February 27th, 2008

As you know, a Bézier curve (here meaning specifically a cubic Bézier) is often used for drawing all kinds of things in vector graphics. It has the nice property that the endpoints and control points form a bounding box, and deCasteljau’s algorithm is a nice numerically stable way of evaluating the curve at a particular point. Of course, the same algorithm trivially gives the tangent to the curve at that point and from there it’s a hop and a skip to find the normal.

All well and good so far. The problem I wanted to tackle was that of spacing points equally along the curve (and incidentally, pushing these same points out along the normal), so that I can easily modulate a pattern (e.g. sawtooth, square wave) on to an arbitrary Bézier curve.

But there’s a slight problem with the naive method for doing this. Recall that a Bézier curve is in fact a parametric curve, specified by the parameter t which varies from 0 to 1 along the curve. The problem is that a linear increment of the parameter t does not correspond to a linear step along the curve length. For some curves, it’s not a bad approximation, but the more “curvy” the Bézier, the worse the discrepancy. This picture is a clear illustration of this problem. The picture shows points (and points pushed along the normal) plotted on the curve, as t increments linearly from 0 to 1. As you can see, stepping along with constant increments of the parameter t gives the wrong result. These points are not equally spaced along the curve.

So far, I have a naive “correct” solution to this problem as follows: I sample the curve at a high frequency (say 1000). Each segment between points I then treat as a straight line, and I compute the length of the curve (simply the sum of the Pythagorean distance between successive points). I can then step along the curve linearly with respect to the curve length, and recover the parameter t (to actually evaluate the curve at a given point) by a simple calculation (binary search and interpolation between nearest neighbours). The result of this approach: Much better.

### Exploring Pascal’s Triangle

Sunday, August 19th, 2007

Pascal’s Triangle (henceforth known as PT). You know – that thing you learned in maths. The Wikipedia entry, like most mathematical Wikipedia entries, reads (if your mathematical background is anything like mine) like “here’s a few things you might vaguely remember from school, oh and of course gleep = glorp”. Although I have to say, the PT entry is less opaque than most.

If you were lucky enough to have a “recreational maths” class then perhaps you studied PT more. I did have a recreational maths class in the 4th form (erm… 7th grade? I went to a public school with a nonstandard year numbering), but at the time I didn’t appreciate just how much higher level mathematics is intertwined (see trigonometry, complex numbers & calculus). Also, is it just me, or are curricula in general a bit light on actual number theory? I mean, we learn counting, and times tables, but after that it gets a bit fuzzy. Prime numbers? Some cursory investigation. But ISTM that students don’t really get to know the normal counting numbers very well. At least, I didn’t. I remember the occasions where we did take a lesson “off the curriculum” to study them as being some of my favourite maths lessons, e.g. the Hotel Cantor with a room for every positive integer, and the Infinity Bus Line which had a bus for every positive integer, each of which had a seat for every positive integer.

Anyway, PT. The thing I knew about but didn’t appreciate the significance of. Over the last week I’ve been tackling the Project Euler problems and there are a few concerning PT. (There are many inviting an exploration of number theory, which is also very cool). After solving 34%, I decided to skip down to problem 148, “Exploring Pascal’s Triangle”. Not many people have solved this, I thought: daunting! But also, this is my old friend PT. I’d like to get to know it better.

So after a couple of days of head scratching, I realised a way to attack the problem which would terminate before the heat death of the universe (always a useful approach to take). I also coded up some naive programs just to start exploring PT (as the problem says) – in the hope that they would give me some insight. Well, that and 3 or 4 pages of diagramming and scribbling later, I found out some quite interesting things. And I realised that I could solve the problem not just for multiples of 7, but for multiples of any prime. Now that’s cool.

I coded up a solution and ran it. It produced the wrong answer. I realised I’d missed something and corrected it. It produced the wrong answer. I tried again. Wrong answer. So I went to bed. Next morning, I realised my error, and also that I could simplify the program and speed it up. I coded it up again, and after ironing out a few non-algorithmic bugs, I ran it. Hooray! The right answer! I join the club of people who have solved problem 148.

Maths is cool.